Emigration to America permits, letters
How to find information about Polish emigration from the beginning of the 20th century?
One of the sources where we can find exit related content are newspapers published at that time. Thanks to the resources of digital libraries, we can use them in a place and time convenient for us.
Looking through a Przyjaciel Ludu. 1929 edition, No. 3 (People’s Printing House in Krakow) we can find Polonia’s correspondence to the newspaper.
The dollar is the sweat, tears and blood of our worker.
„Dear Friend (words to the newspaper). All over the world people say that America is the richest country. This is true. But they do not know that this country is ruled by 20% of rich people, and they like it vividly. If they want to, they open and set off factories and mines, – but if they don’t want to, they leave the job in one day and nobody will force them to start again. A worker is never certain of a day or an hour. And this poor nation is 45% of the population, that’s almost half the population of America. I don’t count those who own farms. It is a bit easier because they are often independent of the industry. Even the opposite. When there is a strike – they have a cheaper worker. When there is no work in cities, they won’t get it even for money and they starve to death at a young age – and often an immigrant ends their life with suicide. Huge taxes also fall on poor people. If anyone has a cottage, they are forced to pay $ 40-80 in annual tax, and those who only have a wife and a few children of „property” pay $ 10 less a year. And he also must pay to the priest, because if he does not submit an annual contribution, the priest will not bury him.
These are the flavors in this richest country in the world. It is good and prosperous here, but for millionaires. They are the lords and kings of this country.
We here in Pennsylvania work almost exclusively in coal mines. It’s hard because we work only half the time a year. It is such a misery everywhere that you do not need more!
And your people complain about bad times. – Poverty – true, after the war everywhere is bad. But everywhere you turn in that country it is always easier to get help than here. Oh, let them see how much of our sweat, tears and blood are in one dollar!
Who can leave from Poland to America
Przyjaciel Ludu 1930 No. 1
The amount of Polish citizens who can travel to the United States of America under US laws is very slim and amounts to 6524 heads. Emigrants entitled to travel priority (within the limits of the amount) include:
1) Parents of American citizens traveling to their children residing in the United States. If they want to bring them to America, they should obtain an emigration certificate in America.
2) Farmers with wives and children under 18, departing on the basis of affidavits sent by American farmers.
3) Wives and children under the age of 21, people living legally in the United States but not US citizens.
Not belonging to the quota, but are admitted to the United States are wives, husbands (husbands who married American citizens after May 31, 1929 get visas within the quota) and children (up to the age of 21) of American citizens. They get entry visas on the basis of an emigration certificate issued to them in America by their husband, wife or father.
In addition to the amount, admitted to America are:
- Emigrants who have permission to return to the United States, a.k.a.. „Permit to reenter”, or those who report to the American consulate in Poland within one year from their departure from the United States.
- Students who get a visa on the basis of a document stating their enrollment in one of the American higher scientific institutions recognized by the State Department. Recently, the Kosciuszko Foundation has been granted the right to issue such documents.
- People born in America have the right to obtain an American passport and travel to the United States as American citizens. In order to receive an American passport, people born in America should submit an application to the American Consulate in person, enclosing: birth record with a photo, certificate of identity from the eldership in which the applicant resides, affidavit from a relative to whom the applicant wants to go and four photographs. The cost of a passport at the consulate is $ 10. The production of an American passport takes about 2-3 months from the date of application at the American Consulate in Warsaw.
Autor wpisu :
Ania B.- M.
źródło: gazeta „Przyjaciel Ludu” rok 1930, nr 1
Genealogy is often a detective search. One has to be attentive and inquisitive, and then a reward awaits.
When I visited the Ethnographic Museum in Cracow, in order to buy a book about fold costumes two months ago, I did not expect that I could also find interesting facts about genealogical research there.
The first exhibition that I visited at the Ethnographic Museum in Cracow was a
reconstructed chamber of a traditional homestead.
Carved and painted wooden bed, benches, chairs and other household appliances placed under the walls of the room. Colourful sacred pictures, wall tapestries with multi-coloured patterns, embroidered pillows stacked on top of each other. Everything seemed to be waiting for the bustling housekeeper and children running around.
Other museum halls showed scenes from life crowned with old photographs.
There were family photos, photographs depicting rural life, field work, school children, teachers and others were associated with working on flax processing.
The scenes at the museum exhibitions changed as in a kaleidoscope.
In one place, an exhibition of crafts and just around the corner soldier attributes from the early twentieth century.
One of the photos depicted a soldier of the 2nd Brigade of Polish Legions.
Traditional wedding pastries
An interesting exhibition showing wedding pastries. The first is ‚wedding bark model, Zamość district, Lublin province, turn of the 19th and 20th centuries’
Small baking (by the shot glass) is a ‚wedding cone model (the cake was carried before the wedding procession, placed at the top on the wedding rings, Boguchwała, Rzeszów county XIX/XX century’
The woven wheel is ‚a model of a wedding cake, Ropczyce, Podkarpackie , the beginning of XX century’
The big cake on the left side of the photo is ‚wedding cake model, Janów , Lubelskie voi., 1905.
Something for the head
Magier’s description of the album “Stroje Krakowskie” published by the Ethnographic Museum in Cracow.
“Magierka, is a warm round hat, with an inverted rim, woolen, knitted with a garter stitch, full and turned up.Tyniec was the main center of the product near Cracow”
Clothes like painted
The exhibition of regional costumes is the most colourful corner of the museum.
Striped, flowery, checkered, embroidered, woven, printed – various outfits depicting the old fashion from different areas of Poland.
The Ethnographic Museum in Krakow is not only interesting exhibitions, you can also use archival resources there.
It was there that I found some interesting photos that are helpful in genealogy searches.
From Kamień to Cracow
In the museum resources I also found photos from Kamień in the Podkarpacie region.
The photographs were taken in 1913.
Mayor from Kamień /Nisko .
Peasants from Kamień/ Nisko, April 1913.
Peasants in „sukmanas”, Kamień, Nisko, 1913.
Kamień , powiat Nisko ,w zbiorach Muzuem Etnoraficznego w Krakowie
Girls at the corset sewing course, Kamień, Nisko poviat.
In this entry I presented only a part of what can be admired in the museum.
I hope that thanks to the publication of the photos, it will be possible to recognize at least some of the people in them.
The Ethnographic Museum in Cracow is a place which I highly recommend. Interesting exhibits and friendly service await you.
Previous entries on similar topics.
źródła: Muzeum Etnograficzne w Krakowie