emigration from Poland
Emigration to America permits, letters
How to find information about Polish emigration from the beginning of the 20th century?
One of the sources where we can find exit related content are newspapers published at that time. Thanks to the resources of digital libraries, we can use them in a place and time convenient for us.
Looking through a Przyjaciel Ludu. 1929 edition, No. 3 (People’s Printing House in Krakow) we can find Polonia’s correspondence to the newspaper.
The dollar is the sweat, tears and blood of our worker.
„Dear Friend (words to the newspaper). All over the world people say that America is the richest country. This is true. But they do not know that this country is ruled by 20% of rich people, and they like it vividly. If they want to, they open and set off factories and mines, – but if they don’t want to, they leave the job in one day and nobody will force them to start again. A worker is never certain of a day or an hour. And this poor nation is 45% of the population, that’s almost half the population of America. I don’t count those who own farms. It is a bit easier because they are often independent of the industry. Even the opposite. When there is a strike – they have a cheaper worker. When there is no work in cities, they won’t get it even for money and they starve to death at a young age – and often an immigrant ends their life with suicide. Huge taxes also fall on poor people. If anyone has a cottage, they are forced to pay $ 40-80 in annual tax, and those who only have a wife and a few children of „property” pay $ 10 less a year. And he also must pay to the priest, because if he does not submit an annual contribution, the priest will not bury him.
These are the flavors in this richest country in the world. It is good and prosperous here, but for millionaires. They are the lords and kings of this country.
We here in Pennsylvania work almost exclusively in coal mines. It’s hard because we work only half the time a year. It is such a misery everywhere that you do not need more!
And your people complain about bad times. – Poverty – true, after the war everywhere is bad. But everywhere you turn in that country it is always easier to get help than here. Oh, let them see how much of our sweat, tears and blood are in one dollar!
Who can leave from Poland to America
Przyjaciel Ludu 1930 No. 1
The amount of Polish citizens who can travel to the United States of America under US laws is very slim and amounts to 6524 heads. Emigrants entitled to travel priority (within the limits of the amount) include:
1) Parents of American citizens traveling to their children residing in the United States. If they want to bring them to America, they should obtain an emigration certificate in America.
2) Farmers with wives and children under 18, departing on the basis of affidavits sent by American farmers.
3) Wives and children under the age of 21, people living legally in the United States but not US citizens.
Not belonging to the quota, but are admitted to the United States are wives, husbands (husbands who married American citizens after May 31, 1929 get visas within the quota) and children (up to the age of 21) of American citizens. They get entry visas on the basis of an emigration certificate issued to them in America by their husband, wife or father.
In addition to the amount, admitted to America are:
- Emigrants who have permission to return to the United States, a.k.a.. „Permit to reenter”, or those who report to the American consulate in Poland within one year from their departure from the United States.
- Students who get a visa on the basis of a document stating their enrollment in one of the American higher scientific institutions recognized by the State Department. Recently, the Kosciuszko Foundation has been granted the right to issue such documents.
- People born in America have the right to obtain an American passport and travel to the United States as American citizens. In order to receive an American passport, people born in America should submit an application to the American Consulate in person, enclosing: birth record with a photo, certificate of identity from the eldership in which the applicant resides, affidavit from a relative to whom the applicant wants to go and four photographs. The cost of a passport at the consulate is $ 10. The production of an American passport takes about 2-3 months from the date of application at the American Consulate in Warsaw.
Autor wpisu :
Ania B.- M.
źródło: gazeta „Przyjaciel Ludu” rok 1930, nr 1
My trip to Poland has brought many interesting discoveries.
During my visit to the Ethnographic Museum in Cracow, which I was delighted with, I came across a photo with a signature “Wedding in Szreniawa, 1912”.
With the courtesy of the museum, I could share the picture on my blog.
On the same day of my coming to Miechów, after my visit in Cracow, from the local history enthusiast – author of the Miechowski Kuferek site – I have learned, that this photo and many other interesting memories are described in the book “Opowieści z pamięci” (Stories from memories).
Anna Seweryn was born in 1894 in Poręba Górna. She was the daughter of Wawrzyniec and Katarzyna nee Galicka.
Anna’s wedding took place in Szreniawa, where she lived with her parents for several years.
The guests invited to the wedding were also: the relatives and the godparents, who lived in Poręba Górna.
From the story of Anna Szopa (nee Seweryn):
“It was already past twelve, when one of the guests said:
- They’re coming, they’re coming!
On the road from Lgota a row of wagons appeared, with flags surrounding the first cart with the groom and bridesmaids and groomsmen in Cracow costumes. The entire wedding cavalcade looked beautiful. Wedding guests especially admired the groomsmen’s gallop on horses, their assistance to the groom. From the highway to our house, the road ran around a pond, and the house stood on the hill.”
“We were married by a young cleric Zdanowski. It was from his father’s parents that parents bought the land on which they now lived.“
Jan and Anna lived in Zagórow, in muncipality of Trzciąż/ Olkusz.
In the book “Opowieści z pamięci”, Anna recalls that Cracow clothers were ordered and sewn specifically for this occasion at the dressmaker in Miechów.
Szreniawa and Poręba Górska are the areas in which their ancestors lived before 1840. Mardziołek, Mordziołek, Mordzioł
I hope to add more details about this photo soon.